Category Archives: History

A Classic Study on the Kollyvades Movement

One of the standard studies on the Kollyvades movement is Charilaos Tzongas’ doctoral dissertation from 1969: Η περί μνημοσύνων έρις εν Αγίω Όρει κατά τον ΙΗ’ αιώνα (The Controversy about Commemorations on the Holy Mountain in the 18th Century).

It can be read online or downloaded for free at the website of the National Archive of PhD Theses in Greece (here).

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Digitized pre-20th-century Eastern Orthodox doctrinal monuments and manuals of theology

In this post I will collect links to post-Byzantine, pre-20th-century Eastern Orthodox doctrinal monuments and manuals of theology which have been digitized (especially those available in Latin or translations to Western European languages).

Adam (Zoernikav). Tractatus theologici orthodoxi de processione spiritus sancti a solo Patre, vol 1. Köningsberg, 1774.

Adam (Zoernikav). Tractatus theologici orthodoxi de processione spiritus sancti a solo Patre, vol 2. Köningsberg, 1774.

Andrei (von Şaguna). Compendium des kanonischen Rechtes. Hermannstadt, 1868.

Andrei (von Şaguna). Geschichte der griechisch-orientalischen Kirche in Oestreich. Hermannstadt, 1862.

Androutsos, Ch.  The Validity of English Ordinations from an Orthodox Catholic Point of View. London, 1909.

Blackmore, R. W. ed. The Doctrine of the Russian Church: Being the Primer Or Spelling Book, the Shorter and Longer Catechisms, and a Treatise on the Duty of Parish Priests. Aberdeen, 1845.

Bulagov, Afanasii Ivanovich. The question of Anglican orders : in respect to a “vindication” of the papal decision, which was drawn up by the English Roman Catholic bishops at the end of 1897. London, 1899.

Chomjakov, A. S. The Orthodox doctrine on the Church, an essay. Brussels, 1864.

Dositheos (Notaras). The Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem: Sometimes Called the Council of Bethlehem, holden Uunder Dositheus, Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1672. London, 1899.

Duchesne, E., ed. Le Stoglav, ou les “cent chapitres”, recueil des décisions de l’assemblée ecclésiastique de Moscou en 1551. Paris, 1920.

Elias (Meniates). Lapsis offendiculi. Breslau, 1752.

Elias (Meniates). Der Stein des Anstosses. Wien, 1787.

Feofan (Prokopovich). The Russian Catechism. 2nd ed. London, 1725.

Feofan (Prokopovich). Miscellanea Sacra. Breslau, 1744.

Feofan (Prokopovich). Tractatus de Processione Spiritus Sancti. Gotha, 1772.

Feofan (Prokopovich). Christiana Orthodoxa Theologia, vol 1. Köningsberg, 1773.

Feofan (Prokopovich). Christiana Orthodoxa Theologia, vol 2. Köningsberg, 1774.

Feofan (Prokopovich). Christiana Orthodoxa Theologia, vol 3. Köningsberg, 1775.

Feofilakt (Gorskij). Orthodoxae Orientalis Ecclesiae Dogmata, seu Doctrina Christiana de Credenedis. Moscow, 1831.

Feofilakt (Gorskij). Orthodoxae Orientalis Ecclesiae Dogmata, seu Doctrina Christiana de Agendis. Moscow, 1831.

Filaret (Drozdov). “Comparative Statement of Russo-Greek and Roman Catholic Doctrines” in Papers of the Russo-Greek Committe No. 4. n.d.

Filaret (Drozdov). Choix de sermons et discours, vol. 1. Paris, 1866.

Filaret (Drozdov). Choix de sermons et discours, vol. 2. Paris, 1866.

Filaret (Drozdov). Choix de sermons et discours, vol. 3. Paris, 1866.

Filaret (Gumilevskij). Geschichte der Kirche Russlands, 1. Bd. 1872.

Filaret (Gumilevskij). Geschichte der Kirche Russlands, 2. Bd. 1872.

Grass, Konrad, ed. Geschichte der Dogmatik in russischer Darstellung. Gütersloh, 1902.

Hapgood, Isabel Florence. Service Book of the Holy Orthodox-Catholic Apostolic Church. 2nd ed. New York, 1922.

Irinej (Falkovskij), ed. Christianae, orthodoxae, dogmatico-polemicae theologiae copendium, vol. 1. Petersburg, 1827

Irinej (Falkovskij), ed. Christianae, orthodoxae, dogmatico-polemicae theologiae copendium, vol. 2. Petersburg, 1827

Kimmel, E. J., ed., Monumentae fidei ecclesiae orientalis, vol. 1. Jena, 1850.

Kimmel, E. J., ed., Monumentae fidei ecclesiae orientalis, vol. 2. Jena, 1850.

King, W. C. ed. Translation from the original Greek of a pamphlet entitled: “Letters of the most pious king [Peter I. of Russia], and of the most holy patriarchs, concerning the establishment of the most holy synod: with an expotion of the orthodox faith of the eastern catholic church.” 1865.

Kyriakos, A. D. Geschichte der orientalischen Kirchen von 1453-1898. 1902.

Makarij (Bulgakov). Introduction à la théologie orthodoxe. Paris, 1857.

Makarij (Bulgakov). Théologie dogmatique orthodoxe, vol. 1. Paris, 1859.

Makarij (Bulgakov). Théologie dogmatique orthodoxe, vol 2. Paris, 1860.

Makarij (Bulgakov). Handbuch zum Studium der christlichen, orthodox-dogmatischen Theologie. Moscow, 1875.

Nicolas (Boulgaris). The Holy Catechism. London, 1893.

Nikodim (Milaš). Das Kirchenrecht der morgenländischen Kirche. Mostar, 2 ed. 1905.

Peter (Mogilas). Orthodoxa confessio catholicae atque apostolicae ecclesiae orientalis. Breslau, 1751.

Peter (Mogila). The Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. London, 1762.

Platon (Levshin). Orthodoxa Doctrina seu Compendium Theologiae Christianae. Petersburg, 1774.

Platon (Levshin). A Summary of Christian Divinity. Edinburgh, 1814.

Stefan (Javorskij). Dicursum de poena haereticorum. Jena, 1748.

Silvestr (Lebedinskij). Compendium Theologiae classicum didactico-polemicum. 2nd ed. Moscow, 1805.

Sokolof, D. A Manual of the Orthodox Church’s Divine Services. New York, 1899.

Williams, George. The Orthodox Church of the East in the Eighteenth Century: Being the Correspondence Between the Eastern Patriarchs and the Nonjuring Bishops : with an Introduction on Various Projects of Reunion Between the Eastern Church and the Anglican Communion. London, 1868.

Early Translations and Overviews of Eastern Orthodox Theology

Dogmatic theology and Catechisms

N. Boulgaris, A Holy Catechism: Or, Explanation of the Divine and Holy Liturgy and Examination of Candidates for Ordination. 1861.

R. W. Blackmore, ed., The Doctrine of the Russian Church. 1845.

A. S. Chomjakov. The Orthodox doctrine on the Church, an essay. 1864.

F. Gavin. Some Aspects of Contemporary Greek Orthodox Thought. 1923.

W. Gass. Symbolik der griechischen Kirche. 1872.

W. C. Kind, ed. Translation from the original Greek of a pamphlet entitled: “Letters of the most pious king [Peter I. of Russia], and of the most holy patriarchs, concerning the establishment of the most holy synod: with an expotion of the orthodox faith of the eastern catholic church.” 1865.

Konrad K. Grass, Geschichte der Dogmatik in russischer Darstellung. 1902.

Macarie, Introduction à la théologie orthodoxe. 1857.

Macarie, Théologie dogmatique orthodoxe, Volume 1. 1859.

Macarie, Théologie dogmatique orthodoxe, Volume 2. 1860.

Makarius. Handbuch zum Studium der christlichen, orthodox-dogmatischen Theologie. 1875.

Peter Mogila, The Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church. 1762.

Platon, Metropolitan of Moscow, The Present State of the Greek Church in Russia: Or, a Summary of Christian Divinity. 1815.

Platon, Metropolitan of Moscow, The orthodox Doctrine of the Apostolic Eastern Church. 1857.

Platon, Metropolitan of Moscow, The Great Catechism of the Holy Catholic, Apostolic, and Orthodox Church. 1867.

George Williams, The Orthodox Church of the East in the Eighteenth Century: Being the Correspondence Between the Eastern Patriarchs and the Nonjuring Bishops : with an Introduction on Various Projects of Reunion Between the Eastern Church and the Anglican Communion. 1868.

Church history

A. D. Kyriakos. Geschichte der orientalischen Kirchen von 1453-1898. 1902.

Philaret, Geschichte der Kirche Russlands, 1. Bd. 1872.

Philaret, Geschichte der Kirche Russlands, 2. Bd. 1872.

 

 

 

Some Digitized Resources on Hagiography and Heortology

Batiffol, Pierre. History of the Roman Breviary.

Delehaye, Hippolyte. The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography.

Delehaye, Hippolyte, ed. Synaxarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanum.

Duchesne, Louis. Christian Worship: Its Origin and Evolution.

Kellner, Karl Adam Heinrich. Heortology: A History of the Christian Festivals from their Origin to the Present Day.

Martinov, Johannes. Annus ecclesiasticus graeco-slavicus.

Nilles, Nikolaus. Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesiae orientalis et occidentalis, vol. 1.

Nilles, Nikolaus. Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesiae orientalis et occidentalis, vol. 2.

Thurston, Herbet J. and Donald Attawater, eds. Butler’s Lives of the Saints, Complete Edition.

 

Digitized classics of historical theology

Here are links to English translations of some classics in the field of historical theology that have been digitized:

Bardenhewer, Otto. Patrology: The Lives and Works of the Fathers of the Church.

Brück, Heinrich and Joseph Hergenröther. History of the Catholic Church, vol. 1.

Brück, Heinrich and Joseph Hergenröther. History of the Catholic Church, vol. 2.

Campenhausen, Hans von. The Fathers of the Greek Church.

Cobham, Claude Delaval. The Patriarchs of Constantinople.

Delehaye, Hippolyte. The Legends of the Saints: An Introduction to Hagiography.

Duchesne, Louis. Early History of the Christian Church, vol. 1: From its Foundation to the End of the Third Century.

Duchesne, Louis. Early History of the Christian Church, vol. 2: From its Foundation to the End of the Fourth Century. 

Duchesne, Louis. Early History of the Christian Church, vol. 3: From its Foundation to the End of the Fifth Century. 

Fortescu, Adrian. The Orthodox Eastern Church. 2nd ed.

Fortescu, Adrian. The Lesser Eastern Churches.

Hackett, John. A History of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus: From the coming of the Apostle Paul and Barnabas to the Commencement of the British Occupation (A.D. 35-A.D. 1878).

Harnack, Adolph von. The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries, vol. 1.

Harnack, Adolph von. The Mission and Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries, vol. 2.

Harnack, Adolph von. History of Dogma, vol. 1.

Harnack, Adolph von. History of Dogma, vol. 2.

Harnack, Adolph von. History of Dogma, vol. 3.

Harnack, Adolph von. History of Dogma, vol. 4.

Harnack, Adolph von. History of Dogma, vol. 5.

Harnack, Adolph von. History of Dogma, vol. 6.

Harnack, Adolph von. History of Dogma, vol. 7.

Hefele, Karl Joseph von. A History of the Christian Councils from the Original Documents, vol. 1: To the Close of the Council of Nicaea, A.D. 325. 

Hefele, Karl Joseph von. A History of the Christian Councils from the Original Documents, vol. 2: A.D. 326 to A.D. 429.

Hefele, Karl Joseph von. A History of the Christian Councils from the Original Documents, vol. 3: A.D. 431 to A.D. 451. 

Hefele, Karl Joseph von. A History of the Christian Councils from the Original Documents, vol. 4: A.D. 451 to A.D. 680.

Hefele, Karl Joseph von. A History of the Christian Councils from the Original Documents, vol. 5: A.D. 626 to the Close of the Second Council of Nicaea, A.D. 787. 

Kellner, Karl Adam Heinrich. Heortology: A History of the Christian Festivals from their Origin to the Present Day.

Lagrange, Marie-Joseph. Historical Criticism and the Old Testament.

Lebreton, Jules and Jacques Zeiller. The History of the Primitive Church.

Lietzmann, Hans. The Founding of the Church Universal.

Loisy, Alfred Firmin. The Gospel and the Church.

Neale, John Mason. A History of the Holy Eastern Church, vol. 1: The Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Neale, John Mason. A History of the Holy Eastern Church, vol. 2: The Patriarchate of Alexandria.

Neale, John Mason. A History of the Holy Eastern Church, vol. 3: The Patriarchate of Antioch.

Newman, John Henry. An Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine.

Percival, Henry R. The Seven Ecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church: Their Canons and Dogmatic Decrees.

Schaff, Philip. The Creeds of Christendom with a History and Critical Notes, vol. 1: The History of Creeds.

Schaff, Philip. The Creeds of Christendom with a History and Critical Notes, vol. 2: The Greek and Latin Creeds with Translations.

Schroeder, Henry Joseph. Disciplinary decrees of the general councils, text, translation, and commentary.

Seeberg, Reinhold. Text-Book of the History of  Doctrines.

Thurston, Herbet J. and Donald Attawater, eds. Butler’s Lives of the Saints, Complete Edition.

Tixeront, Joseph. History of Dogmas, vol. 1: The Antenecene Theology.

Tixeront, Joseph. History of Dogmas, vol. 2: From St. Athanasius to St. Augustine (318-430).

Tixeront, Joseph. History of Dogmas, vol. 3: The End of the Patristic Age (430-800).

Tixeront, Joseph. A Handbook of Patrology.

Wace, Henry and William C. Piercy. A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D., with an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies.

Holy and Great Council

The Holy and Great Council of the Orthodox Church is in session on Crete from Orthodox Pentecost and the during the following week. Here are some information about the pan-orthodox council:

Official site of the council: https://www.holycouncil.org/

Official versions of preconciliar documents: https://www.holycouncil.org/preconciliar-documents

Message of the council: https://www.holycouncil.org/-/message

Encyclical of the council: https://www.holycouncil.org/-/encyclical-holy-council

Official documents of the council: https://www.holycouncil.org/official-documents

News bulletins from the council: https://www.holycouncil.org/news/bulletins

Videos of the daily press briefings from the council: https://www.holycouncil.org/video

Press office of the council: https://www.orthodoxcouncil.org/

Coverage of the council by The Wheel (including summaries of press briefings): http://www.wheeljournal.com/council/

The preconciliar acts and documents (including the official periodical Synodica): http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr/gr_main/dialogos/

Site of the secretariat for the preparation of the Holy and Great Council of the Orthodox Church: https://sites.google.com/site/centreorthodoxe/saint-et-grand-concile

 

The Influence of V. V. Bolotov on Orthodox Theology

A very important text for the development of Eastern Orthodox theology in the nineteenth century is Professor V. V. Bolotov’s theses on Filioque. These theses were anonymously published in German translation in the context of the negotiation between the Old Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox Churches after the First Vatican Council of the Roman Catholic Church. They were later published in Russian under his name.

Bolotov’s essay influenced, on the one hand, Eastern Orthodox dogmatic theology with its clear reflection on doctrinal authority in dogmatic theology through the distinction between dogma, theologoumenon, and private theological opinion.

On the other hand, Bolotov’s theses were also ecumenically influential since he argued that the schism between the Eastern Church and the Western Church was not caused by the Filioque but by the ecclesiological claims by the Roman papacy. Bolotov argued that the status of dogma could not be ascribed to the Filioque, but that it was a theologoumenon of some church fathers and, therefore, acceptable as a theologoumenon in Orthodox theology.

Georges Florovsky wrote as follows about Bolotov’s theses:

The most important contribution to the discussions [between Old Catholics and Eastern Orthodox] was an essay by Professor V. V. Bolotov, of the Academy of St Petersburg, Thesen über das “Filioque”. Bolotov suggested a strict distinction between (1) dogmas, (2) theologoumena, and (3) theological opinions. He defined a theologoumenon as a theological opinion held by those ancient teachers who had recognized authority in the undivided Church and are regarded Doctors of the Church. All theologoumena should be regarded as permissible, so long as no binding dogmatic authority is claimed for them. Consequently, the Filioque, for which the authority of St. Augustine can be quoted, is a permissible theological opinion, provided it is not regarded as expressing a doctrine which must be believed as a necessary article of the Faith. On the other hand, Bolotov contended that the Filioque was not the main reason for the split between the East and the West. He concluded that the Filioque, as a private theological opinion, should not be regarded as an impedimentum dirimens to the restoration of intercommunion between the Orthodox and the Old Catholic Churches. It should be added that the clause was omitted by the Old Catholics in Holland and Switzerland, and put in parentheses in the liturgical books in Germany and Austria, to be ultimately omitted also. That is to say that it was excluded from the formal profession of the Faith.

(“The Orthodox Churches and the Ecumenical Movement Prior to 1910” in A History of the Ecumenical Movement, vol. 1: 1517-1948, edited by R. Rouse and S. C. Neill, 3d ed. London, 1986, pp. 208-209.)

The Bulgarian theologian Stefan Zankow wrote as follows about Bolotov’s influence on Orthodox dogmatic theology:

The normal method of adding to the dogmas accepted by the Orthodox Church would be through decisions of the whole Church (oecumenical). The small number might easily have been increased by such practical and, so to speak, illegal means as elevating certain theses of tradition to the positions of dogmatic tenets of the Church. That this has not been the case is explained by the viewpoint, quite generally accepted in modern times, that strict lines must be drawn between “dogma,” “theologumenon,” and mere theological “opinion.” According to this view, “dogma” is the true doctrine fixed by an Oecumenical Council and accepted by the whole Church: only a thesis so determined has the obligatory character of a dogma. The faith of the Orthodox Church is thus objectively and formally expressed in revelation and in dogma, and the theological exposition of that faith must hold itself strictly to these. This faith is the only objectively true and generally obligatory element in the Church. Besides these, there must be considered the “theologumena” of the Church Fathers and the propositions of orthodox theological science.

The general acceptance of this principle in the Orthodox Church is the result of the efforts of the great Russian Church historian, Bolotov. In his “theses” he set forth the following: First, “dogma” is the truth as determined by an Oecumenical Council. Second, “theologumenon” is the theological opinion of one or many of the holy fathers of the undivided Church. The content of the theologumena is probable truth: anyone may adhere to a given theologumenon until a competent church court has decided it to be faulty, just as on the other side no one can demand that a theologian should accept a theologumenon as his private opinion. Of course, the number of the fathers who accept a given viewpoint of this nature has no significance as to its validity; still, the greater the number who defend such a statement, the greater probability of its truth. Third, and last, comes private theological opinion. In comparison with a theologumenon, private opinion has no authority. Each one is free in his personal opinion, but limited by the requirement that private opinion shall not conflict with dogma. The dogmas are “necessaria,” the theologumena, “dubia”: “In necessariis, unitas; in dubiis, libertas.”

(The Eastern Orthodox Church, London, 1929, pp. 39-40.)

The German version of Bolotov’s theses are available online here. The Russian version published in several parts is available here.

Ottoman Greek Historiography

An addition to my previous post with links to digitized documentary sources for Ottoman Greek church history:

Dorotheos of Monemvasia, Βιβλίον ιστορικόν περιέχον εν συνόψει διαφόρους και εξόχους ιστορίας : Αρχόμενον από Κτίσεως Κόσμου, μέχρι της αλώσεως Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, και των ακολούθων Σουλτάνων, 1814.

Athanasios Komninos-Ypsilantis, Τα μετά την άλωσιν (1453-1789), 1870.

Dositheos of Jerusalem,  Δωεδεκάβιβλος, 1715.

Manuel Gedeon, Πατριαρχικοί Πίνακες, 1885-1890.

K. N. Sathas, ed., Bibliotheca Graeca Medii Aevi, vol. III, 1872.

Meletios of Athens, Εκκλησιαστική Ιστορία, 4 vols., 1784-1795.

K. N. Sathas, ed.,  Βιογραφικόν σχεδίασμα περί του Πατριάρχου Ιερεμίου Β’ : (1572-1594), 1870.

Ph. Vapheides, Εκκλησιαστική Ιστορία από του Κυρίου ημών Ιησού Χριστού μέχρι των καθ’ ημάς χρόνων, 3 vols, 1884-1928.

Ottoman Greek History from the 15th to 17th Century

Several important documentary sources to Ottoman Greek history of the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are digitized at Google Books:

Martin Crusius, Turcograeciae, 1584.

Stephan Gerlach, Tagebuch, 1674.

Chrysanthos of Jerusalem, Syntagmation, 1715.

Chrysanthos of Jerusalem, History of the Holy Land, 1728.

Immanuel Bekker, ed., Historia Politica et Patriarchica Constantinopoleos: Epirotica, 1849.